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Fire Entrapments



Previous Studies of Vehicle Burnovers


Test Procedures and Methods

Test Results



About the Author

Appendix A - Vehicle Entrapment Study Plan

Appendix B - Characterizing Gases Generated in Vehicles and Fire Shelters

Appendix C - Insulated Boxes for Protecting Video Cameras

Also read about engine entrapment incidents:


Fire Entrapments
Comparing Conditions Inside
Vehicles and Fire Shelters


Anderson, Hal E. 1982. Aids to determining fuel models for estimating fire behavior. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-122. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station NFES 1574. Boise, ID: National Wildfire Coordinating Group

Bond, A.; Cheney, N. P. 1986. A discussion paper on techniques and equipment for bush fire fighters entrapped by fire. Canberra, Australia: CSIRO National Bush Fire Research Unit.

Cheney, N.P. 1972. Forestry and timber bureau studies human behavior in bushfires...don't panic and live. Canberra, Australia: CSIRO Division of Forestry. NAT/DEV: September 1972.

Cullom, Keith D. 1986. The breaking point: twice in one season. Boston MA: National Fire Protection Association. Fire Command. March 1986: 22-27.

Douglas, D. R. 1969. Safety as a factor in the design of fire-fighting vehicles. In: South Australian Emergency Fire Services E.F.S. Manual: 30, 32, 34, 47.

Gustin, Bill 1996. New fire tactics for new-car fires. Fire Engineering. April 1996: 43-54.

Harris, J. P. 1997. Calabasas Incident entrapment analysis. Los Angeles, CA: County of Los Angeles Fire Dept.

Knight, Ian 1988. What intensity of fire can a fire fighter survive in a reflective shelter? Boston, MA: Fire Technology. November 1988: 312-331.

Mangan, Dick. 1993. New standards for wildland firefighting protective clothing and equipment. Tech Tip 9351-2340-MTDC. Missoula, MT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Missoula Technology and Development Center.

Mangan, Dick. 1995. Safety zones versus survival zones (Recommendations B.5 and B.8). In: Interagency Management Review Team on South Canyon Fire: Final Report.

Mangan, Dick. 1994. Lessons learned: the use of personal protective equipment on wildfire entrapments in 1993. Tech Tip 9451-2335-MTDC. Missoula, MT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Missoula Technology and Development Center.

Mangan, Richard J. 1996. Wildfire safety: equipment, training and attitudes. In: Seminar on Forests, Fire and Global Change. Sushenskoye, Russian Federation.

McArthur, A. G.; Douglas D. R.; Mitchell, L. R. 1966. The Wandilo Fire, 5 April 1958: fire behavior and associated meteorological and fuel conditions. Leaflet No. 98,O.D.C. 431.6. Canberra, Australia: Department of National Development, Forestry and Timber Bureau, Forest Research Institute.

National Fire Protection Association Committee on Fire Gas Research. 1952. Fire gas research report: report of research by Arthur D. Little, Inc. Quarterly. January 1952. Boston MA: National Fire Protection Association.

Putnam, Ted 1995. Your fire shelter: 1995 edition. Tech. Rep. 9551-2819- MTDC. Missoula, MT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Missoula Technology and Development Center.

Putnam, Ted 1996. Your fire shelter- beyond the basics: 1996 edition. Tech. Rep. 9651-2829-MTDC. Missoula, MT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Missoula Technology and Development Center.

Queensland Forest Service. 1992. Swampy Fire no. 7-S.F. 1004: Toolara State Forest -22 September 1991. Queensland, Australia: Queensland Forest Service.

Smith, J. E. 1994. Fire storm: after action report. Arroyo Grande, CA.

About the Author

Dick Mangan has been Fire and Aviation Program Leader at MTDC since 1989. His major responsibilities include developing equipment for wildland firefighters, primarily personal protective equipment and equipment for smokejumpers. Dick serves on the National Wildfire Coordinating Group Fire Equipment and Safety and Health Working Teams, and is chair of the National Fire Protection Association's technical committee for wildland fire personal protective equipment. He is red-card qualified as an Operations Section Chief I and Planning Section Chief II, and serves as Operations Section Chief on a national Type 1 fire overhead team. Dick has a bachelor of science degree in forestry from Humboldt State University and more than 20 years experience on Ranger Districts and National Forests in Oregon and Washington. His last assignment before coming to MTDC was as Fire Staff Officer for the Ochoco National Forest in Prineville, OR.

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